Biometric Security Systems are designed for recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

Types of Biometric Characteristics used for Biometric Security

Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:

  • Physiological characteristics are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, Palm print, hand geometry recognition, vein recognition, voice recognition, iris recognition, which has largely replaced retina, and odour/scent.
  • Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gesture, gait, and voice/speech recognition. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.

A biometric system can operate in the following two modes:

  • Verification – A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Can be done in conjunction with a smart card, username or ID number.
  • Identification – A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold.

Biometric Security Applications

  • Biometric Time & Attendance system for corporate employees
  • Physical Access Control to secured areas in industries
  • Biometric Logical Access control of PC and Network Access in IT companies
  • Biometric Financial Security for E-commerce transactions
  • Healthcare Industry for patient identification and healthcare equipment access
  • Police departments and other law enforcement bodies make use of biometric identification for catching criminals and investigating
  • Immigration and Airports for Electronic Passport and Visa stampings
  • Biometric security for personal gadgets such as laptops, PDAs, cell phones, etc.
  • Biometric Security for Home security devices such as door locks