PCB Design & Assembly
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using signal traces (PCB tracks) etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive dielectric substrate. If a PCB has only copper tracks and features, without any circuit components, then it is referred as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. […]
Flexible PCB or Flexible Circuit Board or Flex PCB is a patterned arrangement of printed circuitry and components that utilizes flexible based material with or without flexible coverlay. FPCBs are used widely in everyday technology and electronics in addition to high-end, complex completed components. In transportation they are extensively used due to their improved resistance […]
In today’s world, the demand for ultra-high-speed PCB design is on the rise. High-Speed PCBs and High Frequency PCB circuit boards are widely used in wireless networks, wireless communications and satellite communications, in particular the popularity of 3G networks exacerbate the market demand for the product on the HF PCB. With the advance of highly […]
Current Carrying Capacity of PCB Traces The current carrying capacity of PCB traces could be different than the value presented in standards and datasheets or obtained after solving thermal equations. According to IPC standards, the current carrying capacity of PCB traces represents the maximum electrical current that can be carried continuously by a trace without […]
High Temperature PCB Design is the necessity of High-Temperature Electronics that pose Design and Reliability challenges. High Temperature PCB ( High Tg PCB ) is a good choice for electrical equipment of the high temperature environment. Electrical equipment will be better performance, use High-Temperature PCB in high-temperature state. Many industries are calling for electronics that […]
Electronics Solderless Assembly is an Electronics Manufacturing technology to make electronic products without solder. Electronics assembly technology has been tied up to the soldering process for virtually then entire history of electronics manufacturing. The relationship has been a largely successful eutectic tin-lead solders which offer a remarkable balance of electrical and mechanical qualities and which […]
X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) RoHS Analyzer is the most common tool used for RoHS compliance testing. XRF RoHS Analyzers come in stand-alone, bench-top and handheld formats. XRF RoHS testing using a portable handheld XRF analyzer is usually performed first and focuses on the parts of a product with the highest risk of containing restricted substances. RoHS […]
RoHS Restricted Materials The EU RoHS Directive (2011/65/EU) restricts the maximum allowable levels of six hazardous substances: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), mercury (Hg), polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants to 0.1% or 1000 ppm (except for cadmium, which is limited to 0.01% or 100 ppm) by weight of […]
Software technology makes the electronics system design easy, and reduce a lot of manual work done by engineers. There are already a plenty of software tools available for most of the electronics design, simulation, testing, design analysis, manufacturing, verification, and validation of prototype hardware. A lot of environmental regulations such as WEEE, RoHS, REACH SVHC, […]
RFID tags (Active RFID tags, and Passive RFID tags) are often used attached to other articles, for example for stock identification or theft control. The RFID tag is in these cases not deemed a part of the article, as it is not intended to function together with the article but rather to be removed prior […]
Are cables within the scope of RoHS 2? Generally from 3 January 2013 cables are in scope of RoHS2, unless they specifically belong to an EEE or a combination of EEE that is outside the scope of RoHS 2. Cables that are used for the transfer of electrical currents or electromagnetic fields are EEE. Cables […]
Electrical or Electronic Equipment specifically designed solely for the purpose of research and development, which is made available solely on a business-to-business basis, are excluded from the scope of RoHS 2. This is because if this type of equipment were to fall within scope of RoHS 2, it could place a burden on research, scientific […]
Are batteries within the scope of RoHS Directive? No. Recital 14 of RoHS 2 specifically states that RoHS should apply without prejudice to the Batteries Directive. Recital 29 of the batteries and accumulators directive (2006/66/EC) states RoHS does not apply to batteries and accumulators used in electrical and electronic equipment. RoHS Directive (2002/29/EC) restricts the […]
RoHS and REACH are two different environmental directives with different scopes and objectives. RoHS 2 is a sector specific directive laying down rules on the restriction of certain hazardous substances in EEE, while REACH is a general act regulating registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemical substances. RoHS 2 does not affect the application of […]
Why RoHS-2 Revision? The RoHS-recast was mainly aimed at: increasing the level of legal clarity and certainty, including the facilitation of its harmonised enforcement; developing better regulatory conditions. That means a simple, effective and enforceable Directive; aligning and harmonising RoHS with other EU legislation, such as the New Legislative Framework – ’Marketing of Products Package‘, […]
PCB Log Periodic Antennas or Log Periodic Printed Circuit Board Antennas are the antennas made by Kent Electronics on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). These are also called as Printed Antennas. PCB Log Periodic Antennas are broadband antennas used for HD Television (HDTV), wireless networking, analog cellular telephones, and other broadband applications. PCB Antennas are a […]
Popcorn Failures are because of moisture sensitivity of IC Packages, and thermal stress during soldering while PCB assembly. Improper storage, handling, or packaging of plastic encapsulated semiconductor devices can allow the introduction of moisture. Moisture trapped inside plastic encapsulated packages can damage them during soldering, as the moisture vaporizes and tries to expand. The expansion […]
PCB Delamination is a common problem for high-density multi-layer printed circuit boards (PCB). Boards are probably delaminating because, during processing, they are thermally and/or mechanically stressed beyond their limits of adhesion.
Thermal fatigue causes serious reliability issues in case of solder joints of surface mount components. Thermal fatigue is defined as thermal expansion leading to degradation or cracking of materials caused by repeated heating and cooling.
Tin Whiskers pose a serious reliability issue to electronics assemblies with RoHS Lead-free design, whose components are having pure Tin or Matte Tin. Tin Whiskers Risk Mitigation Plans are the precautions to help avoiding/controlling Tin Whiskers.
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