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The development of 5G technologies aimed at increasing
data rate of wireless communication networks by a factor of 100 imposes
stringent specifications (large bandwidth, high gain, small size and
temperature independent performance) on the design of the radio frequency (RF)
electronics. Various front-end antenna solutions relying on patch radiating
structures have been proposed for millimeter-wave applications. Said antennas
are characterized by small size, low weight, and low cost and can be easily
integrated on chip.

However, because of losses in conductors as well as
dielectric substrate materials, these antennas suffer from very low radiation
efficiency (

DRAs rely on leaky dielectric resonators that can
transform guided waves into volume waves (RF signals). In the past, these
antennas have been mainly realized by making use of ceramic materials
characterized by large permittivity and high quality (Q) factor (between 20 and
2000). Figure 1 shows examples of different radiating structures that can be
used for dielectric resonator antennas.