Geographical Information System (GIS) or Geospatial Information System is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographically referenced data. Geospatial information is data referenced to a place—a set of geographic coordinates—which can often be gathered, manipulated, and displayed in real time. Global Positioning System (GPS) data and their integration with digital maps has led to the popular handheld or dashboard navigation devices used daily by millions.

GIS Geospatial/Geographical Asset MappingModern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. The most common method of data creation is digitization, where a hard copy map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through the use of a computer-aided design (CAD) program, and geo-referencing capabilities. With the wide availability of ortho-rectified imagery (both from satellite and aerial sources), heads-up digitizing is becoming the main avenue through which geographic data is extracted. Heads-up digitizing involves the tracing of geographic data directly on top of the aerial imagery instead of by the traditional method of tracing the geographic form on a separate digitizing tablet (heads-down digitizing).

GIS uses spatio-temporal (space-time) location as the key index variable for all other information. Just as a relational database containing text or numbers can relate many different tables using common key index variables, GIS can relate otherwise unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. The key is the location and/or extent in space-time.

Geospatial information systems (GIS), mobile workforce applications, and communications management play a key role in constructing, operating, maintaining, and managing critical network assets.

Geospatial Analysis

Geospatial Information System (GIS) and Geospatial AnalysisGeospatial Analysis is an approach to applying statistical analysis and other informational techniques to geographically based data. Such analysis employs spatial software and analytical methods with terrestrial or geographic datasets, including geographic information systems and geomatics.

Geospatial Analysis, using GIS, was developed for problems in the environmental and life sciences, in particular ecology, geology and epidemiology. It has extended to almost all industries including defense, intelligence, utilities, Natural Resources (i.e. Oil and Gas, Forestry etc), social sciences, medicine and Public Safety (i.e. emergency management and criminology). Spatial statistics typically result primarily from observation rather experimentation.

Geospatial analysis goes beyond 2D mapping operations and spatial statistics. It includes: Surface analysis, Network analysis, and Geovisualization.