Gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. Gyroscope sensors are primarily used for measurement, monitoring and controlling of device position, orientation, rotation, angular motion or direction. Gyroscopic sensors used in navigation systems (ship, aircraft, monorail), wireless computer pointing devices, and gesture recognition systems in smartphones and tablet PCs.

Applications of Gyroscopes

  • Inertial navigation systems where magnetic compasses would not work or would not be precise enough, or for the stabilization of flying vehicles like radio-controlled helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles.
  • Due to their high precision, gyroscopes are also used to maintain direction in tunnel mining.
  • Gyroscopes are used in Smartphones and tablet PCs for finding the position and orientation of devices.
  • Wireless computer pointing devices such as mouse for controlling the mouse pointer based on wireless mouse movement.
  • Gyroscopes are used in virtual reality headset to change the display orientation by using miniature gyroscope sensors
  • Gyroscope sensors are also used in vehicles for monitoring and balancing their orientation during vehicle motion.
  • Gyro Monorail, Gyroscopic Monorail, Gyro-stabilized Monorail, or Gyrocar are terms for a single rail land vehicle that uses the gyroscopic action of a spinning wheel, to overcome the inherent instability of balancing on top of a single rail.
  • Gyroscopic Exercise Tool is a device used to exercise the wrist as part of physical therapy or in order to build palm, forearm and finger strength. It can also be used as a unique demonstration of some aspects of rotational dynamics.

Types of Gyroscopes

  • Gyrostat – Gyrostat is a variant of the gyroscope. It consists of a massive flywheel concealed in a solid casing.
  • MEMS Gyroscope Sensors – MEMS gyroscope takes the idea of the Foucault pendulum and uses a vibrating element, known as a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System).
  • Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG) – Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a gyroscope that uses the interference of light to detect mechanical rotation. The fiber optic gyroscopesensor is a coil of as much as 5 km of optical fiber.
  • Vibrating Structure Gyroscope (VSG) or Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscope (CVG) – Coriolis vibratory gyroscope uses a resonator made of different metallic alloys. It takes a position between the low-accuracy, low-cost MEMS gyroscope and the higher-accuracy and higher-cost FOG. Accuracy parameters are increased by using low-intrinsic damping materials, resonator vacuumization, and digital electronics to reduce temperature dependent drift and instability of control signals.
  • Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope (DTG) – dynamically tuned gyroscope is a rotor suspended by a universal joint with flexure pivots. The flexure spring stiffness is independent of spin rate.
  • Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG) – Ring laser gyroscope consists of a ring laser having two counter-propagating modes over the same path in order to detect rotation. It operates on the principle of the Sagnac effect which shifts the nulls of the internal standing wave pattern in response to angular rotation.
  • Quantum Gyroscope – Quantum gyroscope is a very sensitive device to measure angular rotation based on quantum mechanical principles.
  • Anti-Rolling Gyroscope – Anti-rolling gyroscope used to stabilize roll motions in ocean-going ships. It lost favor in this application to hydrodynamic roll stabilizer fins because of reduced cost and weight. Gyroscopic roll stabilizers that use a passively damped (braked) precession motion in their designs.