The Lithium-Sulfur battery (Li-S battery) is a rechargeable galvanic cell with a very high energy density. By virtue of the low atomic weight of lithium and moderate weight of sulfur, Li-S batteries are relatively light; about the density of water. They were demonstrated on the longest and highest-altitude solar-powered airplane flight in August, 2008. Lithium Sulfur batteries may succeed lithium-ion Batteries because of their higher energy density and the low cost of sulfur.

There is much interest in using Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries for electric vehicles. A Lithium Sulphur Battery technology can potentially deliver a 300+ miles per charge car batteries for electric vehicles.

Battery costs are driven primarily by the material content and yield. As sulfur is much less expensive than the typical components of other battery systems, the Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology starts with a lower material cost than lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries. To further reduce costs of Lithium-Sulfur batteries, thin film deposition techniques can be used for 75% of the cell components, resulting in less electrochemically inert material per cell.

A unique feature of Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology is its liquid cathode. This provides exceptionally fast transfer of charge and offers two benefits. First, a wide range of power delivery can be accommodated. When a surge of power is required, as in power tools or vehicle acceleration, the liquid cathode provides a rapid flow of energy. Second, low temperature operation has less effect on energy availability. The liquid cathode’s high-energy transfer rate provides at least 65% of ambient temperature rated capacity at temperatures as low as -40°C. This is important in in vehicles andmilitary electronics. In addition, no heavy metals are used, and therefore Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has low environmental impact.

Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology provides rechargeable cells with a gravimetric energy density of over 300Wh/kg and the promise of 600Wh/kg energy densities in the future. Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries provide as many as 1,000 recharge cycles for electric vehicle use.

Advantages of Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Battery

The distinct advantages of lithium sulphur batteries that make it suitable for HEV/EV applications include:

  • High specific energy density in the range of 250-350Wh/Kg
  • Inherent safety features that offer satisfactory performance during thermal, mechanical, and abuse-tolerance tests
  • Environmentally friendly due to its biodegradable components
  • Low cost of manufacturing due to affordable raw materials
  • Low recharge time compared with other chemistries; on average, a complete charging is possible in three hours, which is less time than other chemistries such as lead acid batteries and the like