Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by the industry trade group known as the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). 3GPP engineers named the technology “Long Term Evolution” as it represents the next step (4G) in a progression from 2G-standard GSM to Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), the 3G technologies based upon GSM.

Long Term Evolution (LTE) Logo4G LTE meets the requirements of next generation networks including downlink peak rates of at least 100Mbit/s, an uplink of at least 50Mbit/s, and RAN (Radio Access Network) round-trip times of less than 10ms. It supports flexible carrier bandwidths – from 1.4MHz up to 20MHz – as well as both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex).

The combination of LTE’s increased spectrum efficiency, flexibility, greater capacity, and simpler network architecture results in lower Operating Expenditures (OPEX) for the carrier, and improved user experience and lower cost of ownership for the subscriber. Additionally, LTE supports seamless connection to existing networks, such as GSM, CDMA and WCDMA.

The recent increase of mobile data usage and emergence of new applications such as MMOG (Multimedia Online Gaming), mobile TV, Web 2.0, streaming contents have motivated the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) to work on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE).

4G LTE has been set aggressive performance requirements that rely on physical layer technologies, such as, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, Smart Antennas to achieve these targets. The main objectives of LTE are to minimize the system and User Equipment (UE) complexities, allow flexible spectrum deployment in existing or new frequency spectrum and to enable co-existence with other 3GPP Radio Access Technologies (RATs).