Cryptography is the security practice of Data Encryption for hiding secret information. Encryption is the conversion of data into a form, called a ciphertext. Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. With the computer technology, the digital data is more prone to security threats and information hacking. […]

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Cryptanalysis is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information that is normally required to do so. Typically, this involves knowing how the system works and finding a secret key. In non-technical language, this is the practice of codebreaking or cracking the code, although these phrases […]

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Wired equivalent privacy (WEP) is a broken security algorithm for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. WEP is widely used and is often the first security choice presented to users by router configuration tools. Wired Equivalent privacy uses the stream cipher RC4 for confidentiality and CRC-32 checksum for integrity. Standard 64-bit WEP uses a 40-bit key, which […]

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Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. The Greek word Steganography means concealed writing. In Steganography, messages do not attract attention to themselves as in cryptography. Steganography […]

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ARIA is a general-purpose block cipher algorithm developed by Korean cryptographers in 2003.ARIA is an iterated block cipher with 128-, 192- and 256-bit keys and encrypts 12-bit blocks in 12, 14 and 16 rounds depending on key size. ARIA is secure and suitable for most software and hardware implementations on 32-bit and 8-bit processors. The […]

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ABC algorithm, also called Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm was proposed by Karaboga in 2005. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on intelligent foraging behavior of honey bee swarm. ABC is used in computer science and operational research. ABC is used in neural networking. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm works against numerical optimization problems. […]

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Cryptography consists of Block Ciphers. One of such block cipher algorithm is the 3-Way Algorithm. It was designed by Joan Daemen and has a key and block size of 96 bits. 3-way algorithm is an iterated block cipher that repeats some relatively simple operations a specified number of times. A related key attack on 3-way […]

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Message Authentication Code (MAC) is one of the Cryptographic Hash Function and is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message. Message Authentication Codes are also called as authentication tags or Checksum. MAC is verified by an intended recipient. A Message Authentication algorithm accepts secret key as its input and an arbitrary length […]

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Cryptographic Hash function is a complex encryption algorithm used in cryptography and it refers to a shortened version of full-scale encryption. A Cryptographic hash function is a deterministic procedure that takes an arbitrary block of data and returns a fixed-size bit string, the hash value, such that an accidental or intentional change to the data […]

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Data Encryption Standard (DES) or DES Encryption Algorithm is a technique by which a message is scrambled into an indecipherable stream of bits for transmission. Data Encryption Standard also called DES is a block cipher which forms a code for secret encryption. DES was selected by the National Bureau of Standards as official Federal Information […]

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The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an encryption algorithm for securing information in commercial transactions in the private sector. AES is a symmetric key encryption standard adopted by the U.S. government. The Advanced Encryption Standard consists of three block ciphers. They are: AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256. Each of the above standard ciphers is 128-bit block […]

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Asymmetric encryption algorithms employ a pair of keys, one is a public key and the other one is a private key. Asymmetric encryption algorithm also called as public key cryptography simplifies the management of symmetric keys. It can be used to establish the repudiation of origin and receipt. Some of the Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms are […]

Symmetric key encryption uses same key, called secret key, for both encryption and decryption. Users exchanging data keep this key to themselves. Message encrypted with a secret key can be decrypted only with the same secret key. The algorithm used for symmetric key encryption is called secret-key algorithm. Since secret-key algorithms are mostly used for […]

Public key cryptographic system consists of two separate keys, one to lock or encrypt the plain text, and the other to unlock or decrypt the ciphertext. One of the key is public key and the other is a private key. The lock or encryption key of the Public Key Cryptographic system enables private communication from […]

Symmetric-Key Cryptography consists of a key called symmetric key, with the help of which both encryption and decryption processes are carried out. The algorithms used in the Symmetric-key cryptography are often termed as symmetric key ciphers or private-key ciphers or secret-key ciphers or conventional ciphers etc. In Symmetric Key Cryptosystems, a single key is used […]

Security Key Issuing protocol sets multiple key privacy authorities in addition to Key Generating center to protect the privacy of users private keys. Thus, Security key issuing protocol computes userâ€™s private keys. The key escrow problem of ID-based cryptography is solved by the Security key issuing protocol. Therefore Security Key issuing is more important in […]

Identity Based Cryptography results in an Identity Based signature Scheme resulting in secure and properly authenticated systems. In Identity based cryptography scheme, data is encrypted using an arbitrary string as the key. For decryption, decryption key is mapped to the arbitrary encrypted key by a key authority. Identity based cryptography is a type of public-key […]

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Quantum Cryptography poses a method for secure key exchange over an insecure channel based on the nature of photons, which have polarization. Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects i.e. in quantum communication and quantum computation to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems. Quantum cryptography has a special defense against eaves […]

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Multivariate Cryptography is a family of public key cryptosystems. Multivariate cryptography is the generic term for asymmetric cryptographic primitives based on multivariate polynomials over finite fields. Multivariate polynomials could be defined over both ground field and extension field. The degree two polynomials can be called as multivariate quadratics. Multivariate cryptography thus called, Multivariate quadratics can […]

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Visual cryptography is a cryptographic technique which allows visual information i.e. pictures, text, etc. to be encrypted in such a way that decryption can be done by human visual system without the use of computers. Visual Cryptography is a visual secret sharing scheme, where an image was broken up into n shares. The individual with […]

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