Car accident is one of the major causes of death in many countries. Many researchers have attempted to design and develop techniques to increase car safety in the past recent years. In spite of all the efforts, it is still challenging to design a system adaptive to the driver rather than the automotive characteristics. Researchers working on the subject of Automobile safety to study and practice of safety in vehicle design, construction, and autoeletric equipment to minimize the occurrence and consequences of automobile accidents.
Automotive safety systems are two types, “Active Safety” and “Passive Safety”. Active safety refers to technology assisting in the prevention of a crash and passive safety refers to components of the vehicle (primarily airbags, seatbelts and the physical structure of the vehicle) that help to protect occupants during a crash.
Vehicle/Car Safety Systems – Automobile Safety
Here is the list of various vehicle safety systems/devices for your information. These include vehicle crash avoidance systems, and Crashworthy systems and devices prevent or reduce the severity of injuries when a crash is imminent or actually happening.
Active Safety Systems of Vehicles
- The vehicle’s mirrors, headlamps, reflectors, and other lights and signals
- The vehicle’s brakes, steering, and suspension systems
- Automatic Braking systems to prevent or reduce the severity of collision.
- Infrared night vision systems to increase seeing distance beyond headlamp range
- Adaptive highbeam which automatically and continuously adapts the headlamp range to the distance of vehicles ahead or which are oncoming
- Adaptive headlamps swivels headlamps around corners
- Reverse backup sensors, which alert drivers to difficult-to-see objects in their path when reversing
- Backup camera of vehicles
- Adaptive cruise control which maintains a safe distance from the vehicle in front
- Lane departure warning systems to alert the driver of an unintended departure from the intended lane of travel
- Tire pressure monitoring systems or Deflation Detection Systems
- Traction control systems which restore traction if driven wheels begin to spin
- Electronic Stability Control, which intervenes to avert an impending loss of control
- Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) of vehicles
- Electronic brakeforce distribution systems
- Emergency brake assist systems
- Cornering Brake Control systems
- Precrash system of vehicles
- Automated parking system
Passive Safety Systems of Vehicles
- SeatBelts limit the forward motion of an occupant, stretch to slow down the occupant’s deceleration in a crash, and prevent occupants being ejected from the vehicle.
- Airbags inflate to cushion the impact of a vehicle occupant with various parts of the vehicle’s interior.
- Laminated windshields remain in one piece when impacted, preventing penetration of unbelted occupants’ heads and maintaining a minimal but adequate transparency for control of the car immediately following a collision. Tempered glass side and rear windows break into granules with minimally sharp edges, rather than splintering into jagged fragments as ordinary glass does.
- Crumple zones absorb and dissipate the force of a collision, displacing and diverting it away from the passenger compartment and reducing the impact force on the vehicle occupants. Vehicles will include a front, rear and maybe side crumple zones too.
- Side impact protection beams.
- Collapsible universally jointed steering columns, (with the steering system mounted behind the front axle – not in the front crumple zone), reduce the risk and severity of driver impalement on the column in a frontal crash.
- Pedestrian protection systems.
- Padding of the instrument panel and other interior parts of the vehicle likely to be struck by the occupants during a crash.